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Every Oracle database has several administrative files associated with it. Among these files are configuration files, core dump files, trace files, export files, and other related log files. You need to store these files under separate directories for ease of maintenance. Assuming you have about ten or so of these directories for each database, you can see why it s imperative that you have a simple means of organizing them. Oracle recommends the following directory structure for clarity: /h/admin/d/a, where h is the Oracle base directory (e.g., /u01/app/oracle), admin indicates that this directory holds administration-related files, d refers to the specific database, and a refers to the subdirectories for each specific type of administrative files. For example, the /u01/app/oracle/admin/prod1/ bdump directory will contain all background process trace files as well as the all-important alert.log files for the prod1 database. Table 7-1 lists the standard administrative directories that you ll need in most cases. Of course, you may add to the recommended list or modify it to fit your circumstances. Table 7-1. Typical Administrative Directories

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Contains ad hoc SQL files Contains archived redo log files Contains any audit files Contains background process trace files Contains SQL scripts that you can use for creating your databases Contains core dump files Contains the Data Pump Export files Contains instance parameter files (such as init.ora) Contains SQL trace files for user processes

If you follow the OFA guidelines, and your database is called prod1, you ll end up with the following directories for your administrative files: $ pwd /u01/app/oracle/admin/prod1 $ ls adhoc adump bdump cdump dpdump $

if [ "$old_pass_word" != "$cur_pass_word" ] then test "$DEBUG" != "" && echo DEBUG: $user password has changed,\ updating $shad

The dpdump directory is new to Oracle Database 10g and holds the logs and other files for the Data Pump Export and Import utilities.

using namespace System; #pragma comment (lib, "user32.lib") int main() { RECT rect; GetWindowRect(GetDesktopWindow(), &rect); int pixelsX = rect.right; int pixelsY = rect.bottom; Console::WriteLine("Resolution of desktop: {0} x {1}", pixelsX , pixelsY); return 0; } The following listing shows the IL code generated from the preceding source (with a few modifications to increase readability): .method assembly static int32 modopt([mscorlib]System.Runtime.CompilerServices.CallConvCdecl) main() cil managed { .vtentry 1 : 1 .maxstack 3 .locals ( int32 pixelsY, int32 pixelsX, valuetype tagRECT rect)

The whole idea behind properly naming and placing the product files is to be able to implement multiple versions of the Oracle server software simultaneously. This is necessary because when you migrate between versions, it is normal to retain the older software versions until you switch over to the new version. Different applications on the system may have different timeframes within which they want to migrate to the new version. Consequently, in most cases, you ll end up having to support multiple versions of the Oracle server software simultaneously. Oracle recommends that you keep each version of the software in a separate directory distinguished by the naming convention /h/product/v, where h is the home directory, product indicates that the software versions are under this directory, and v is the version of the product. For example, I have a directory on my system called /u01/app/oracle/product/ under which I save all the Oracle server software subdirectories during installation. If I decide to install the 10.2.0 version, I ll do so under the directory /u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0. You can see that this type of naming convention makes it very easy to install and manage multiple versions of the Oracle software.

The administrative and product files are generic files Oracle databases contain another set of key files called database files These include the data files that contain the table and index data and certain operational files called control files and redo log files Control files are crucial to the operation of the database, and redo log files hold information necessary to recover the database during an instance crash and similar situations The OFA recommendation for control and redo files is to follow the naming conventions /pm/q/d/controlnctl and /pm/q/d/redonlog, respectively In this notation, pm is the mount point; q is an indicator, such as oradata , denoting that the files contain Oracle-related data; d is the database name (provided by the DB_NAME initialization parameter, which is the same as the SID for the database), and n is a two-digit number.

Since Oracle recommends that you have multiple control files and duplexed online redo log files, it s common to see the following naming structure for redo log files and control files: /u01/oradata/prod1/control01ctl /u05/oradata/prod1/control02ctl /u02/oradata/prod1/redo01log /u04/oradata/prod1/redo02log Oracle recommends that all tablespaces be named with no more than eight characters, with the format tn, where t is a descriptive name for the tablespace and n is a two-digit number For data files, the recommended notation is /pm/q/d/tndbf, where pm is the mount point; q is an indicator, usually oradata , d is the database name, t is the descriptive name for the tablespace that contains this data file, and n is a two-digit number Thus, a typical data file under the OFA guidelines would have a name like /u20/oradata/prod/system01dbf, which refers to a data file in the System tablespace.

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